Art United States of America
Broke out in the 1775 war for independence, preceded by close unrest and riots, held a sharp distinction between the past and the future and created the first high flowering of literature and art in the United States of America, the birth of a new nation in charge. War of Independence combined wide cross-section of the American people in a common hatred for the British oppressors, it sparked deep sympathy in all European countries, and there is nothing surprising in that. that born from the depths of people’s patriotic enthusiasm began to speak the language of the new art, full of bright and natural identity. This first flowering of art new country – occurred July 4, 1776 the United States – was also supported by the US-British defensive war of 1812-1814. and lasted until about the early 20 -ies.
Aggravation of relations with Britain, and then the formation of the American Republic led to a split in the ranks of artists, since not all the inhabitants of the British colonies in America participated in the liberation struggle or sympathized with her. Some of them, such as Copley and West – ever left America, and national identity of their work gradually dissolved in the back to the turn of the 19th century. general decline of English portrait and historical painting. However, what was Copley and West before the war for independence, became an important link in the tradition of American Art. These are soberly realistic, expertly executed portraits ” Boy with flying squirrel ” (c. 1765 ; Boston, Museum of Fine Arts), ” Nathaniel Hurd ” ( 1765 – 1770 ; Cleveland Museum of Art ) by John Singleton Copley ( 1738-1815 ) and Romantic inspiration images of Benjamin West (1738-1820) ” The Death of General Wolfe ” ( 1770, Ottawa, Canada National Gallery ), “Colonel Guy Johnson ” (c. 1775 ; Washington, National Gallery).
John Singleton Copley. Boy with flying squirrel ( Henry Pelham ). Approx. 1765 Boston, Museum of Fine Arts.
Most of the American artists inspired by patriotic enthusiasm of his countrymen, has gained new strength and inspiration to create large art national values. Among them – the “artist of the American Revolution ” by Charles Wilson Peel (1741-1827) and Mather Brown ( 1761 – 1831). The first – an outstanding figure of Education, author of several somewhat dry realistic portraits ( “Washington and Lafayette at Yorktown “, 1784, Annapolis (MD), the House of Representatives, “Sons of the artist on the stairs,” 1795, Philadelphia Museum of Art, etc.), by initiative, which was founded in 1805 Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. Second – techniques developed acute psychological characteristics in the portraits of Thomas Jefferson and Colonel Mac Kolri ( U.S., private collection).
Charles Wilson Peel. The sons of the artist on the stairs. 1795 Philadelphia Museum of Art.
Heroic romanticism of the War of Independence by John Trumbull permeated creativity (1756-1843), created a whole gallery of portraits of contemporaries in their graceful miniatures ( “Senator Izard,” 1793, New Haven, Yale University Art Gallery, etc.) and especially in historical paintings on the events of the liberation struggle. This series of small and carefully finished paintings multifigure written Trumbull on the heels of important scenes that marked the birth of the American Republic, including the pathetic “Battle at Bankers Hill ” ( 1786 ), and full of proud victory consciousness painting ” Surrender of General Burgoyne at Saratoga ” and ” Captivity Hessian soldiers at Trenton ” (1786-1790), and the solemn ” Declaration of Independence ” (1786-1794, all – new Haven, Yale University Art Gallery ), which depicts the leaders of the liberation war and the new state. Despite the traditional conventions of academic painting compositional techniques, elevated – theatrical gestures heroes in these pictures is real sincerity and life.
Most of the best masters of the first flowering of American art was primarily a portraitist, although almost all of them tried their hand at other genres. In the portrait of gravity reflected the increased attention to the human person, to the fate of the world and spiritual new people, which is always inherent in a large pivotal era in the history of the people. It was then formed and took shape the national consciousness of the new republic ; This process involved a variety of segments of the American society – from the most moderate to the most radical and democratic. Clash and struggle of different perspectives on the person as well as on the objectives and goals of art, reflected in the colorful diversity of the American portrait of the late 18th – early 19th century.
The most outstanding among portraitists was Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828), who returned after studying in England at home. Portrait of his skill was very high ; One of the most significant portraits Stewart – ” Skater ” ( 1782, Washington, National Gallery) – a long time attributed to the greatest portraitists of England – Gainsborough. Indeed, the growth in this portrait depicting William Grant of Kongltona, easily and gracefully moving on skates on the ice, there are genuine poetic power and deep honesty, so characteristic portraits of Gainsborough. But Stewart is usually drier, more sober and material in its dense, weighty painting. Very typical for Stuart to paint from life portrait of George Washington ( 1795, Washington, National Gallery). He makes a sober, even prosaic image of famous historical figures, endowed with sizeable human shortcomings. This gruff, red-faced people are elderly years with a confident and powerful but unfriendly look, probably very similar to its original. Stewart wrote three of the first president of the United States from nature, and based on these portraits created a number of variations, all gone in a majestic scope of generalization, idealization.
In the works of Stuart can permanently mark oscillation between romantic elation, fully consistent with the mood of the era, and encourage him to seek spectacular posture and give their models sublimely noble nature (for example, the portrait of General Knox, Boston, Museum of Fine Arts), and strict unvarnished, sometimes even dryish realistic certainty, following the traditions of portraitists end of the preceding, the so-called ” colonial ” period.
Gilbert Stuart. Portrait of Mrs. Perez Morton. Approx. 1802 Worcester (USA, MA) Museum.
As if to counterbalance exactly sober female portrait galleries Washington ( “M- Iets with ” 1793 ) or portrait EI Dashkovoj wives Russian envoy to the United States ( c. 1815, Hermitage), Stewart creates an easy, gentle way to freely paint a portrait Mrs. Perez Morton (c. 1802, Worcester, USA, Massachusetts, Museum ), reminiscent of the most masterly sketches of Gainsborough.
Conflicting ideologies clash of art were particularly clear in cases where different artists painted portraits of the same well-known figures of the war for independence. Without any preconceived enthusiasm and reverence approached models Joseph Wright ( 1756-1793 ). In profile portrait of Washington (1784-1790, Cleveland Museum of Art ), he gave the most valiant soldier than complete an important dignity of the president. Wright belongs to the best in American painting a portrait of the great scientist Franklin ( 1782, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts ), also made ??unvarnished harshly and severely. Wright emphasizes the creative well that the basic trend in the composition of American art of the late 18th – early 19th century., Which equally went from naive and representative schemes formal portrait “colonial era” and from outside the romantic idealization substitute truth illusions.
Thomas Sully. Torn hat. 1820 Boston, Museum of Fine Arts.
Of realist artists most significant was Thomas Sully (1783 – 1872), who created his best work in his youth, to 1820 in its paired portraits of Captain Chamberlain and his wife, Caroline ( 1810 ) draws and picturesque freedom of easy execution and elegant soft intimate warmth characteristics. The best portraits of Sally is a portrait of the first truly democratic president of the United States – an architect and philosopher and educator Thomas Jefferson ( American Philosophical Society ) formed in a dynamic manner, with a large pictorial power and generalization. Living charm permeated his portrait of a boy (” Torn Hat “, 1820, Boston, Museum of Fine Arts ), written in a light gray, pink and yellow tones, wonderfully reminiscent of the portrait of his son V.Tropinin. Early work Sally not only completed the first phase of the process of forming an independent art from England United States, but many important features foreshadow the future prosperity of the American paintings of the second 60 – 90s.
To appreciate the importance and value of the first flowering of the arts USA, it should be noted that after the Revolutionary War took place in high rise architecture. It was during this time has developed an American version of classicism, which have been widely spread throughout the Eastern United States and determine the nature of public buildings and large private estates that time. It was the largest representative of Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), who managed in their best structures put in his own classical heritage. Harmony of proportions and grandeur of the building is distinguished by its virgin Capitol in Richmond (1785-1796), reminiscent of the type of ancient temple with a strongly projecting forward shesgikolonnym portico. More is intimate in nature and picturesque Planners University of Virginia in Charlottesville ( 1818), a wonderfully connected with the surrounding park. These features intimate and harmonious connection with nature and are inherent in Monticello (1796-1809) in Virginia, in which most clearly manifested the principles of free interpretation not only ancient but also of Palladian architecture.
During the first heyday of American architecture is marked by big and bold quest in the field of urban development. By this time the activity of P. S. L’Enfant (1754-1825), a remarkable scheduler U.S. capital – Washington. Developed by them to a regular plan, based on the isolation of several centers – areas and radially emanating from them large avenue linking together all parts of the city, and was built by Washington. Here, the residence of the President – the White House, which was built in 1792 by James Hobanom.
Classicism put his stamp on the face of many ancient cities in the U.S. ; simplified its dryish, stressed geometrically ordered widespread forms of the province, having lived there until the mid-19th century.
Compared with the architecture evolved much slower sculpture America. However, one of its most important primary sources was extremely significant. U.S. war for independence attracted the sympathy of many wonderful people in Europe, including the famous French sculptor Houdon, who went on a long voyage across the ocean, in the United States to perform a monumental marble statue of Washington (1785-1792, Richmond, Virginia ). That his work Houdon had undeniable and profound influence on the fate of American sculpture. But the next worthy successors Houdon appeared in the U.S. in the second half of the 19th century.
During the 1820-1850 -ies. weakens the coupling of American Art progressive line of European culture. In the development of artistic taste begins to play a decisive role limited in their aesthetic views quickly grown rich bourgeoisie midwestern states. However, the rapid social and ideological contrasts this time found its expression in the emergence of some new trends and searches, have been developed in the second half of the 19th century.
The architecture replaced classicism came eclectic flow, surface imitating all kinds of styles, from Gothic to ancient Greece. There was a tendency to grandiose and ostentatious effects – produced restructuring Capitol ( Congress building in Washington, crowned colossal dome (authors X. B. Latrobe, S. Bulfinch and others). New asserting himself a nation tried to oppose his power and greatness of the old grandeur of Europe. but it was difficult to give the greatness of this is not the heroic era of U.S. history, marked by the seizure of land in the West, barbaric extermination of the Indians, all sorts of fraudulent speculation. Few truthfulness and gave this false appearance ” flourishing ” of bourgeois America and those creating salon- academic painting and sculpture, which began to set the tone in the art of this period.
There is something wonderfully cheeky and banal in the lush, bravura portraits that in the 20-ies. D. Neagle started writing or S. Morse (soon replaced, however, its spectacular, performed bathos painting to engage technical inventions in which he became famous worldwide ).
But if the portrait of 20 -40- ies. all how – ever live was just an echo of the past, the landscape appeared things previously unseen in the art of the United States, although it is in the landscape divergent quest manifested even more pronounced ; it immediately showed two opposite tendencies, sometimes interwoven most bizarre way in the work of the same artists. Main place was idealized and conventional landscape, often painted mystical mood. Beside him evolved realistic for directly depicts nature of the United States in its national identity and to a greater or lesser extent permeated living lyrical sense. The first of these areas, unusually abundant in the number of artists and works, noisy enjoyed fame and success, not only in the years of its constitution, but to an even greater extent in the third quarter of the century, when it degenerated substantially in clean interior painting. The second trend grew slowly and was confirmed only to the 50 th years.
Ideally, effectively romanticized landscape has taken a leading role ” of the Hudson River School ” – direction devoured almost all other artistic phenomena of the same order. Its name, this group of artists, not united in any organizational forms received by the favorite range of themes and motifs, originally limited picturesque places, and New England states of New York and Pennsylvania, and above all – the Hudson Valley. Founder of the ” Hudson River School ” was Thomas Cole (1801-1848), who combined abstract and unbridled romantic imagination with meticulous naturalistic copying. He was the first systematically to paint landscapes on the Hudson River, and it is equally possible to ascribe the honor of opening the beauty of the real nature of America and at the same dubious merit first biased distortion of the real nature transfigured in conventionally theatrical and sometimes frankly mystical and symbolic spirit (” Morning on the Hudson River “, Boston, Museum of Fine Arts, etc.).
Along with landscape painters ” Hudson River School ” worked master realist principles – Hyde MD, F. X. Lane. Usual Hida horizontally elongated coastal scenery with distant outlook are amazingly materiality, almost illusory foreground objects and space. In the most powerful of them, such as : ” The approaching storm. Seashore near Newport “(c. 1860 ; Boston, Museum of Fine Arts), there are severe tensions and romantic monolithic integrity of the composition and dark gray color. Education Leynau lithographer in Boston helped him to master the wealth of shades of light, rolling from black to white, and in his painting to preserve the purity and clarity of color and spatial relationships inherent in the chart. From air -shrouded golden early landscapes (” Bay in Maine,” 1830. ) He came in 40 – 50s. almost to the same illusionistic, accurate and complete at the same time clear simplicity landscapes, which at the same time wrote Hyde. These are his “View of the bay from the Gloucester Dollivers Neck ” or ” Ships in the ice near the island of Ten Pound ” (all – Boston, Museum of Fine Arts).